Non-Lethal Management Tools

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho

Stone et al (PDF)

Effectiveness of a simulated pack to manipulate wolf movements

Anhalt et al (PDF)

Living with Livestock and Wolves – Review of the Literature

Western Wildlife Outreach (PDF)

Occurrence of large carnivores near settlements: a review of mechanisms and preventive measures

Marcus Elfström and Ole-Gunnar Støen Norway (PDF)

Livestock Manangement for Coexistence with Large Carnivores, Healthy Land & Productive Ranches

2015 (PDF)

 Cow dogs: Use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle

VerCauteren et al, 2012 (PDF)

Shock Collars as a Site-Aversive Conditioning Tool for Wolves

Rossler et al, 2012  (PDF)

Developing a New Shock-Collar Design for Safe and Efficient Use on Wild Wolves

Harvey et al, 2013 (PDF)

Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?

Gehring et al, 2010 (PDF)

Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms

Gehring et al, 2010 (PDF)

Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan

Davidson-Nelson and Gehring, 2010 (PDF)

Conditioned Taste Aversion: A behavioral solution to the behavioral aspects of predator-prey conflicts

Nicolaus and Moriarty, 2008 (PDF)

Food Aversion


Conditioned Taste Aversion

Nicolaus et al (PDF)

Wolf Paw Print