Trophic Cascade

Deer change the landscape indirectly

Deer affect forest plant composition by altering facets of the forest environment, including light availability, soil compaction, and the thickness of a particular layer of soil (PDF)
Sabo et al

Fear of large carnivores causes a trophic cascade

Suraci et al February 2016 (PDF)

Trophic Cascades in Great Lakes Wolves

Rooney et al (PDF)

LARGE PREDATORS, DEER, AND TROPHIC CASCADES IN BOREAL AND TEMPERATE ECOSYSTEMS

Ripple et al 2009 (PDF)

Wolves Facilitate the Recovery of Browse-Sensitive Understory Herbs in Wisconsin Forests

Couchard et al 2013 (PDF)

Recolonizing wolves trigger a trophic cascade in Wisconsin (USA)

Ramana Callan et al 2013 (PDF)

Long-Term Regional Shifts in Plant Community Composition Are Largely Explained by Local Deer Impact Experiments

Frerker et al 2014 (PDF)

Is science in danger of sanctifying the wolf?

L. David Mech, 2012 (PDF)

Wolves, deer, maples and wildflowers

Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white‑tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest
Flagel et el (PDF)

Adult Does Avoid Core Areas That Wolves Use

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and MultiPredator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival
Duquette et el (PDF)

Wolf Paw Print