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Nonlethal Techniques for Managing Predation: Primary and Secondary Repellents

Conservation biology requires the development of practical tools and techniques to minimize conflicts arising from human modification of ecosystems. We applied behavioral theory of primary and secondary repellents to predator management by using aversive stimulus devices (electronic training collars) and … read more

Low-Stress Livestock Handling Protects Cattle in a Five-Predator Habitat

Given the ecological importance of top predators, societies are turning to non-lethal methods for coexistence. Coexistence is challenging when livestock are released within wild predator habitats, even when people supervise or use lethal methods. We report a randomized, controlled design … read more

USDA APHIS Wildlife Services Nonlethal Initiative for Livestock Protection

In FY2021, Wildlife Services (WS) received $1.38M from Congress for the second year in a row to expand the use of nonlethal methods to protect livestock from large carnivore depredation and to research efficacy and development of new nonlethal approaches. … read more

The Wood River Project has proven that non-lethal measures are effective

The Wood River Wolf Project is a collaborative of conservation organizations, ranching operations, academic institutions, community members, and county, state and federal agencies working together to use proactive, nonlethal deterrents to minimize livestock and wolf conflicts. 

How Long Do Anti-Predator Interventions Remain Effective? Patterns, Thresholds and Uncertainty

Human–predator conflicts are globally widespread, and effective interventions are essential to protect human assets from predator attacks. As effectiveness also has a temporal dimension, it is of importance to know how long interventions remain most effective and to determine time … read more

Spatial associations of livestock guardian dogs and domestic sheep

Livestock guardian dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; LGDs) have been used for centuries to protect livestock, primarily domestic sheep (Ovis aries), from depredation by large carnivores. While previous studies have shown their efficacy, the mechanisms in which LGDs protect livestock have … read more

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