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Reciprocity in Restoration Ecology: When Might Large Carnivore Reintroduction Restore Ecosystems?

Carnivore reintroduction is often expected to revert community and ecosystem properties to their natural states via risk effects and the direct killing of prey. Because large carnivore extirpation and reintroduction are usually believed to have symmetric and offsetting effects, fulfilling … read more

Can Large Carnivores Change Stream via Trophic Cascade?

Large carnivores were persecuted in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, during the late 1800s and early 1900s, leading to extirpation of grey wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor). Soon thereafter increased herbivory of riparian plant communities by Rocky Mountain … read more

Wolves for Yellowstone: Dynamics in Time and Space

The reintroduction of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park is the most celebrated ecological experiment in history. As predicted by population models, the rapid recovery of a wolf population caused both temporal and spatial variability in wolf–ungulate interactions … read more

Indirect Effects And Traditional Trophic Cascades: A Test Involving Wolves, Coyotes, And Pronghorn

The traditional trophic cascades model is based on consumer–resource interactions at each link in a food chain. However, trophic-level interactions, such as mesocarnivore release resulting from intraguild predation, may also be important mediators of cascades. From September 2001 to August … read more

A Mammalian Predator–Prey Imbalance: Grizzly Bear and Wolf Extinction Affect Avian Neotropical Migrants

Because most large, terrestrial mammalian predators have already been lost from more than 95–99% of the contiguous United States and Mexico, many ecological communities are either missing dominant selective forces or have new ones dependent upon humans. Such large-scale manipulations … read more

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