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Outsized effect of predation: Wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing ecosystem engineers

Gray wolves are a premier example of how predators can transform ecosystems through trophic cascades. However, whether wolves change ecosystems as drastically as previously suggested has been increasingly questioned. We demonstrate how wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing … read more

Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves

Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web, but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide‐ranging and … read more

Wolves, Moose, and Tree Rings on Isle Royale

Investigation of tree growth in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan revealed the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by cycles in animal density and responded to annual … read more

Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic National Park, USA

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated in the early 1900s from the Olympic Peninsula of northwestern Washington. Thus, we studied potential cascading effects of wolf removal by undertaking a retrospective study of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus) populations, riparian forests, and … read more

Tall willow thickets return to northern Yellowstone

Northern Yellowstone National Park provides an example of passive restoration, as wetlands and riparian areas there lost most tall willows in the 20th century, due to intensive herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). Following large carnivore restoration in the late 1990s, … read more

Reciprocity in Restoration Ecology: When Might Large Carnivore Reintroduction Restore Ecosystems?

Carnivore reintroduction is often expected to revert community and ecosystem properties to their natural states via risk effects and the direct killing of prey. Because large carnivore extirpation and reintroduction are usually believed to have symmetric and offsetting effects, fulfilling … read more

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