Predator/Prey Relationships: Moose
Wikenros et al
Observations of Deer and Wolves during the 2017 Moose Survey Mike Schrage, Fond du Lac Resource Management Division (PDF)
Research on moose in Minnesota indicates approximately 2/3rds of adult moose die from causes other than direct predation, so evidence of wolf feeding may merely represent scavenging.
Minnesota moose are some tough critters but research is showing that complex factors are combining to make their survival more and more precarious (PDF)
Parasites deer carry into Minnesota’s North Woods have emerged as the leading cause of death for moose, state and tribal biologists have concluded (PDF)
Lankester et al