Trophic Cascade

Reciprocity in restoration ecology: When might large carnivore reintroduction restore ecosystems?

Removing or reintroducing apex predators from ecosystems does not appear to have predictable restorative effects,” the researchers concluded, “but solid confirmation will require additional rigorous tests of this assumption of reciprocity.”

Alston et al (pdf)

Can Large Carnivores Change Stream via Trophic Cascade?

Beschta et al (pdf)

Wolves for Yellowstone: dynamics in time and space

Mark Boyce October 2018 (pdf)

Using the Yellowstone model in human-dominated systems would have a very different effect, and the top-down influence of wolves and other large carnivores cannot be expected to rescue ecosystems outside national parks or other protected areas.

Indirect Effects And Traditional Trophic Cascades: A Test Involving Wolves, Coyotes, And Pronghorn

Berger et al (pdf)

A Mammalian Predator–prey Imbalance: Grizzly Bear And Wolf Extinction Affect Avian Neotropical Migrants

Berger et al (pdf)

Carnivore Repatriation And Holarctic Prey: Narrowing The Deficit In Ecological Effectiveness 

Joel Berger (pdf)

Aspen is making a comeback in and around Yellowstone National Park, because of predators

Aspen recruitment in the Yellowstone region linked to reduced herbivory after large carnivore restoration (PDF)
Painter et al

Can predators have a big impact on carbon emissions calculations?

Models suggest that predators and even biodiversity in general play a potentially significant role in carbon sequestration. But whether such results buttress conservation arguments remains a matter of debate. (PDF)

Rewilding the world’s large carnivores

The decision to promote large carnivore rewilding is consistent with a desire to strengthen ecosystem services that benefit humans (PDF)
Wolf et al 

Deer change the landscape indirectly

Deer affect forest plant composition by altering facets of the forest environment, including light availability, soil compaction, and the thickness of a particular layer of soil (PDF)
Sabo et al

Fear of large carnivores causes a trophic cascade

Suraci et al February 2016 (PDF)

Trophic Cascades in Great Lakes Wolves

Rooney et al (PDF)


Ripple et al 2009 (PDF)

Wolves Facilitate the Recovery of Browse-Sensitive Understory Herbs in Wisconsin Forests

Couchard et al 2013 (PDF)

Recolonizing wolves trigger a trophic cascade in Wisconsin (USA)

Ramana Callan et al 2013 (PDF)

Long-Term Regional Shifts in Plant Community Composition Are Largely Explained by Local Deer Impact Experiments

Frerker et al 2014 (PDF)

Is science in danger of sanctifying the wolf?

L. David Mech, 2012 (PDF)

Wolves, deer, maples and wildflowers

Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white‑tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest
Flagel et el (PDF)

Adult Does Avoid Core Areas That Wolves Use

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and MultiPredator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival
Duquette et el (PDF)

Wolf Paw Print