Non-Lethal Management Tools

Livestock guardian dogs and cattle protection: opportunities, challenges, and methods


Carnivore–livestock conflicts in Chile: evidence and methods for mitigation

Rodriguez et al 

Western Landowners Alliance of Sante Fe, NM,  produced a guide for landowners and practitioners in an effort to reduce conflicts with Grizzly Bears, Wolves and Elk
A Livestock Guardian Dog by Any Other Name: Similar Response to Wolves Across Livestock Guardian Dog Breeds

Kinka et al

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho

Stone et al

Carnivore conservation needs evidence based livestock protection

Van Eeden et al

Nonlethal Methods to Prevent Conflicts Between Livestock and Wolves

While livestock losses from wolf predation are relatively low in Minnesota, reducing wolf-livestock conflicts is critical to helping Minnesota’s farmers, wolves, and communities co-exist and thrive. (PDF)

Dogs can help ranchers and predators co-exist? Watch this video and learn how it works! Ranchers who struggle to coexist with large predators are finding new hope in old dog breeds.

Canine Efficiency

National Wolfwatcher Coalition Board Member, Kriszta Fecske, interviewed Ray Dorgelo, Initiator and Owner of Canine Efficiency.  Ray lives in the Romanian Carpathian Mountain region Transylvania with his wife, Jenny. With Canine Efficiency, he  works on effective, non lethal conflict prevention between predators and humans through the correct use of good livestock guardian dogs (LGDs), supported by additional sustainable livestock management practices.  Read the interview

Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia

Wallach et al (PDF)

Researchers banned all forms of persecution on resident dingo packs for their experiment, and then over the ensuing two years, monitored what caused the deaths of cattle on the property. The researchers conclude that by simply leaving dingo populations alone, predation on cattle actually declined: “Ending lethal control may in itself reduce livestock losses by enabling the predator’s social structure to stabilize,”

Good fences make good neighbors: implementation of electric fencing for establishing effective livestock-protection dogs

Gehring et al (PDF)

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho

Stone et al (PDF)

Effectiveness of a simulated pack to manipulate wolf movements

Anhalt et al (PDF)

Living with Livestock and Wolves – Review of the Literature

Western Wildlife Outreach (PDF)

Occurrence of large carnivores near settlements: a review of mechanisms and preventive measures

Marcus Elfström and Ole-Gunnar Støen Norway (PDF)

Livestock Manangement for Coexistence with Large Carnivores, Healthy Land & Productive Ranches

2015 (PDF)

 Cow dogs: Use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle

VerCauteren et al, 2012 (PDF)

Shock Collars as a Site-Aversive Conditioning Tool for Wolves

Rossler et al, 2012  (PDF)

Developing a New Shock-Collar Design for Safe and Efficient Use on Wild Wolves

Harvey et al, 2013 (PDF)

Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?

Gehring et al, 2010 (PDF)

Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms

Gehring et al, 2010 (PDF)

Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan

Davidson-Nelson and Gehring, 2010 (PDF)

Conditioned Taste Aversion: A behavioral solution to the behavioral aspects of predator-prey conflicts

Nicolaus and Moriarty, 2008 (PDF)

Food Aversion


Conditioned Taste Aversion

Nicolaus et al (PDF)

Wolf Paw Print